The Whole is Always Smaller Than Its Parts’ A Digital Test of Gabriel Tarde’s Monads

The Whole is Always Smaller Than Its Parts’ A Digital Test of Gabriel Tarde’s Monads application/pdf icon

British Journal of Sociology Vol 63 n° 4 pp. 591-615, 2012 (this paper has received the BJS annual award for 2014)


In this paper we argue that the new availability of digital data sets allows one to revisit Gabriel Tarde’s (1843-1904) social theory that entirely dispensed with using notions such as individual or society. Our argument is that when it was impossible, cumbersome or simply slow to assemble and to navigate through the masses of information on particular items, it made sense to treat data about social connections by defining two levels: one for the element, the other for the aggregates. But once we have the experience of following individuals through their connections (which is often the case with profiles) it might be more rewarding to begin navigating datasets without making the distinction between the level of individual component and that of aggregated structure. It becomes possible to give some credibility to Tarde’s strange notion of ‘monads’. We claim that it is just this sort of navigational practice that is now made possible by digitally available databases and that such a practice could modify social theory if we could visualize this new type of exploration in a coherent way.


Translation: Français/French
Date: 2013
Traducteur: Barbara Bender
Reference: «Le tout est toujours plus petit que les parties. Une expérimentation numérique des monades de Gabriel Tarde », Réseaux, Vol. 31, 177, pp. 199-233, 2013

Langage: Allemand/German
Date: 201-
Reference: in Ramón Reichert (editor) Big Data, Transcript.

Langage: Portuguese
Date: 2015
Translator:Flávia Gonsales e Beatriz Redko
Journal: Paragraph Journal Vol 2, n°3 2015 pp. 8-25
Title: “O Todi é Sempre Menor Que As Parte um teste digital acerca das mônadas de Gabriel Tarde"